Thursday, May 04, 2006

Sloka 33 and 34


yadaanantyaM pratiGYaaya shrutistatsidhdaye jagau .
tatkaaryatvaM prapaJNchasya tadbrahmetyavadhaaraya .. 33..

Pada artha:
Avadharaya: Ascertain
Tat: that
Brahma iti: to eb Brahman
Partijnaaya: after proposing
Yat anantyam: whose limitlessness
Shrutihi: srutis ( the Vedas)
Tat-sidhye: in order to demonstrate
Jagaav: call
Prapamchasya: the universe
Tat kaaryatvam: to be its modification.

Know that being to be Brahman, which the sruti proposes to prove as limitless and calls the universe its modification in order to support that proposition.
Brahman as we learnt from the previous sloka, is that which is all pervading as explained through various examples of earth, gold etc in the Sruti The Guru here is also explaining Brahman as limitless. Just as originating from earth, a jar cannot limit it, so, the whole universe originates from Brahman cannot limit It.

The earthen jar or the gold ornaments are nothing but the earth or the Gold and they cannot limit the earth or gold in fact, an earthen jar is nothing but earth. Similarly, the entire universe which is but an apparent modification of the Brahman cannot limit it. Brahman is that from which everything originates and is everything that exists. Just as a pot is but clay, all the names and forms perceived are but Brahman. Hence Brahman is described as limitless.

Everything has to be known as Brahman. Just as the pot, jar etc. are to be known as clay only but with modifications and names and forms, all the creations, the entire universe itself has to be known as Brahman only. Limitation of the jar does not mean that the earth from which it is made is limited. Similarly, the objects of the world are Brahman and seem to be limited would not mean that Brahman is limited. These have to be known as only apparent modifications of the One and only Brahman.

Limitations also mean there would be something external to it such as space or time. If there is something external to Brahman, then it should have been originated from something else and that from something else, thus leading to an infinite regression. Also that would bring an association with Brahman. But Brahman is described in the scriptures as one and only. “Asangoham ayam purushaha” say the Upanishads, Brahman is one without the second. Hence nothing can limit it, not even the time and space which are also described as only apparent modifications.

Thus the Guru here instructs the student to know Brahman as verily existence and hence the entire universe and all that exists is Brahman which is limitless.


vijiGYaasyatayaa yaJNcha vedaanteShu mumukShibhiH .
samarthyate.atiyatnena tadbrahmetyavadhaaraya .. 34..

Pada artha:

Avadharaya : ascertain
Tat: that
Brahma iti : to be Brahman
Yat cha: which is
Atiyatnena: very carefully
Samarthate: as the object of search
Mumukshubhihi: on the part of those whose desire liberation

Come to the conclusion that Brahman is the one which has been very carefully established in the Upanishads as the object of search on the part of those who desire liberation.

The Guru is this sloka is explaining Brahman as the ultimate goal. It is the only object of desire for those whose seek liberation. A seeker must overcome all desires of external objects and the only desire permissible for a seeker is that of the Brahman, not the ordinary temporary happiness obtained from money or sensual pleasures but the Bliss infinite which is the very nature of Self, the Brahman. Brahman is thus described here as that which all mumukshu desire.

Every one has a goal in life but what is that which everyone aims at? It is undoubtedly happiness or bliss. A seeker or a wise one who knows the illusory nature of the world and one who knows that the objects of world would lead only to misery never aims only for such temporary happiness but for the eternal happiness. The source of happiness, which is verily Bliss, the knowledge of Self is what all seekers aspire for. That very happiness which everyone seeks out, which is but Self is described here as Brahman.

Here the Guru is also explaining to the disciple that the wise always desire for that which is ever lasting and infinite. All the sadgurus and the scriptures hence instruct seekers to carefully discriminate between the reality and non reality and desire only that which is real. The only thing worthy of being desired is that Bliss. Such Bliss which all seekers search for is the ‘Tat’ or Brahman. Here we have to remember that it is not any object or that which can be ‘searched’ and ‘got’, but the very nature of Brahman which is but Atman or Self. The Guru hence instructs to ascertain that Bliss which is so desired for, which is the object of desire of mumukshutvam, which is verily Bliss as Brahman.

Hari OM.

With regards,

Mallika R
What you have is God's gift to you and what you do with what you have is your gift to God


Blogger vedanta said...


Prostrations to all.

Lord Krishna says in Gita 8.11 thus:
Yad aksharam veda vido vadanthi
Vishanthi yad yathayo veetha raagaah
Yad icchantho brahmacharyam charanthi
Tatthe padam sangrahena pravakshye.

That which is called as Akshara Brahman by people knowing Vedas, that which the striving seekers strive for devoid of any attractions or attachments and that for which people follow Brahmacharya, that i will tell u in brief.

A very simple sloka in found in the Katha Upanishad where Brahman is explained as above.

Thus all the Vedas and scriptures speak about realizing Brahman or that state from where there is no return. Brahman is explained as Sat chit ananda anantha in the Taittiriya Upanishad. Sanatkumara explains Brahman as poorna or bhooma which is eternal bliss in the 8th chapter of Chandogya Upanishad.

Any philosophy whether it is Vedanta or not has the goal of eternal bliss or cessation of sorrow (whether they give it the name Brahman or not).

The Sankhya sutras mention thus: Atha trividha dukha atyantha nivrittih atyantha purushaarthah -- the ultimate purusha artha or goal is complete cessation of the three types of sorrows (adhibhoota, adhidaiva and adhyaatma). Nyaaya and Vaisheshika systems speak about the goal as Nishreyas which is the same as moksha or complete cessation of sorrow. Whereas Nyaaya speaks about it through knowing the 16 entities, Vaisheshika puts it into 7 padaarthaas. Nyaaya gives emphasis to pramaana or the means of right knowledge whereas vaisheshika gives emphasis to prameya or the objects of knowledge which is the 7 padaarthaas. Mimamsaka school speaks about moksha as attaining heaven where there is full bliss.

Thus all systems speak about the goal as one alone -- eternal bliss which is complete cessation of sorrow which is caused due to ignorance about one's own very nature of eternal bliss.

Brahman is propounded as Bhooma or that which is full and that which is full alone can be blissful in nature -- this is what Sanatkumar says to Narada while instructing him on Brahma Vidya in Chandogya Upanishad 8th chapter.

Prostrations to all.


Let a moment not pass by without remembering God

8:23 PM  

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